The Introduction of Xanthones:


Xanthones are a group of natural products with interesting pharmaceutical properties. The xanthone skeleton (the word "xanthon" is derived from the Greek word xanthos, meaning yellow) is a planar, conjugated ring system composed of carbon 14 (aromatic ring A) and carbon 58 (aromatic ring B), combined through a carbonyl group and an oxygen atom. Xanthones, commonly present in the plant families Gentianaceae and Clusiaceae (Guttiferae), can be principally found as polyhydroxylated compounds, but more often with a varying degree of substitution at the C atoms. Most xanthones are mono- or polymethyl esters or glycosides. The oxygen in xanthones restricts the free rotation of the carbon-carbon bonds. They have structural similarities with flavonoids.

Xanthones are secondary metabolites found in some higher plants, fungi, and lichens. Based on the literature, about 650 xanthones are known from natural sources, and their abundance is found in mangosteen fruit. These xanthones have been isolated from 62 families of higher plants, fungi, and lichens. Xanthones from higher plants are distributed in Gentianaceae, Moraceae, Guttiferae, Polygalaceae, and Leguminosae. Different physicochemical and instrumental methods such as liquid-solid and liquid-liquid extraction, TLC, flash chromatography, column chromatography, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, GLC, HPLC, GC, and LCMS have been widely used for the isolation and structural elucidation of xanthones. Xanthones are known to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacologic properties, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral activities.


Fig 1 Xanthones

Classification of Xanthones:


Xanthones isolated from natural sources are classified into six main groups, namely, simple xanthones, xanthone glycosides, prenylated xanthones, xanthonolignoids, bisxanthones, and miscellaneous xanthones.

--Simple Xanthones: Simple oxygenated xanthones are subdivided according to the degree of oxygenation into non-, mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaoxygenated substances. In these xanthones, the substituents are simple hydroxy, methoxy, or methyl groups. About 150 simple oxygenated xanthones have been reported.

--Xanthone Glycosides: Sixty-one naturally occurring glycosylated xanthones, thirty-nine of which are new compounds, have been reported predominantly in the families Gentianaceae and Polygalaceae as C- or O-glycosides. In C-glycosides, the C-C bond links the sugar moiety to the xanthone nucleus, and they are resistant to acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas O-glycosides have typical glycosidic linkage.

--Prenylated Xanthones: Among 285 prenylated xanthones, 173 were described as new compounds. The occurrence of prenylated xanthones is restricted to plant species of the family Guttiferae. The major C5 units of the substituents included the commonly found 3-methylbut-2-enyl or isoprenyl group as in isoemericellin and the less frequent 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl as in nigrolineaxanthone P and 1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl as in globuxanthone, respectively. Prenylated xanthones, caloxanthone O and caloxanthone P, were isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum, and polyprenylated xanthones and benzophenones from Garcinia oblongifolia.

--Xanthonolignoids: Xanthonolignoids are a class of natural products that belong to the xanthone family. They are characterized by the fusion of a xanthone core with a lignan moiety, resulting in a unique chemical structure. Among the 285 prenylated xanthones, 173 were described as new compounds. Xanthonolignoids are widely distributed in nature, particularly in plants, and have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities. The major C5 units of the substituents included the commonly found 3-methylbut-2-enyl or isoprenyl group as in isoemericellin and the less frequent 3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl as in nigrolineaxanthone P and 1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl as in globuxanthone, respectively. Their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities, make them promising candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents.

--Bisxanthones: Bisxanthones are a class of natural compounds that consist of two xanthone units linked together. This unique chemical structure gives rise to their distinct properties and biological activities. Bisxanthones are predominantly found in plants, particularly in species belonging to the Gentianaceae and Clusiaceae families, although synthetic derivatives have also been developed. These include jacarelhyperols A and B, from the aerial parts of Hypericum japonicum, dimeric xanthone, and globulixanthone E, from the roots of Symphonia globulifera. Bisxanthones have attracted considerable interest from researchers due to their potential therapeutic applications.

--Miscellaneous Xanthones: Miscellaneous xanthones represent a diverse group of xanthone derivatives that do not fall into specific subcategories such as xanthonolignoids or bisxanthones. They encompass a wide range of natural and synthetic compounds with varying chemical structures and biological activities. Miscellaneous xanthones have been isolated from various sources, including plants, fungi, and marine organisms. The exploration of these compounds has gained significant attention in recent years as researchers aim to uncover their potential therapeutic applications and develop novel drug candidates.


Product Description:


The chemical structure of xanthone forms the central core of a variety of natural organic compounds, such as mangostin, collectively referred to as xanthones or xanthonoids. Xanthones are found in plants from the families Bonnetiaceae, Clusiaceae, and Podostemaceae and in species of the genus Iris. Xanthones are usually combined with sugar in plants to form glycosides, and a small part exists in the free state (aglycon). Xanthones are known for their diverse range of biological activities and potential therapeutic applications. Derived from various sources, including plants, fungi, and marine organisms, ALL chemistry's xanthones are carefully extracted and purified.

Xanthones play an important role in plant growth, development, flowering, fruiting, antibacterial activity, and disease prevention. Research has revealed that the consumption of xanthone-rich substances, such as mangosteen juice, can offer beneficial antioxidant properties with roles in cancer prevention, cardiac protection, and inflammation. With their unique chemical structure, Xanthones have gained significant attention from researchers and scientists worldwide. ALL chemistry's product offers a wide selection of Xanthones, including simple xanthones, xanthone glycosides, prenylated xanthones, xanthonolignoids, and bisxanthones. Each with its own distinct properties and potential applications. Whether you are a researcher, formulator, or manufacturer in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or cosmetic industries, our Xanthones can be a valuable addition to your product portfolio.


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