Histone Peptide Array Service


The Histone Peptide Array is a valuable research tool that can be used to screen antibodies, enzymes and proteins for cross-reactivity or binding interactions with histones and their post-translational modifications. ALL Chemistry provides Histone Peptide Array Services with strict analytical specifications, which include HPLC and MS analysis.


Introduction of Histone Peptide Array


The Histone Peptide Array can be used to screen antibodies for cross-reactivity or to study protein and enzyme interactions. The array itself contains peptide-cellulose-conjugates spotted onto the planar surface of a standard microscope slide in a three-dimensional layer. This high peptide density enables even protein-interaction sites with low binding constants to be detected. Nowadays, there are more than 2,500 proteins from various species containing more than 5,000 methylation sequences and thus methyltransferase peptide array service that can free scientists from the laborious and time-consuming work by using our custom service and related products.

Protein methylation was initially found in histone and epigenetic research, and currently progress has now identified hundreds of non-histone targets of methyltransferases. The basic methyl transfer reaction is the catalytic attack of a nucleophile (carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur) on a methyl group to form methylated derivatives of proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and various small molecules. Protein lysine (K) and arginine (R) methyltransferases share a similar catalytic core structure utilizing a common methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Arginine methylation can occur in the mono-methyl, symmetrical di-methyl or asymmetrical di-methyl state. Lysine methyltransferases are a family of proteins that contain a SET (SET (Su (var) 3 - 9, Enhancer of Zeste, Trithorax) domain or non-SET domain. Each lysine amine group can be modified by the addition of one, two or three methyl groups.

Recently, a group of enzymes that antagonize or remove histone methylation have been identified. Histone methyltransferase plays important roles in regulating transcription, genome integrity and epigenetic inheritance. Dysfunction of methylation-regulating enzymes in the body has been noted in some types of human cancers, such as liver cancer, suggesting associations between protein methylation and malignant transformation of cells or formation of tumors. In recent years, epigenetic modification of the histone proteins, especially the methylation of the histone H3, has been an emerging area of research in cancer development.


Fig.1 Modified Histone Peptide Array



The Effect of Active Motifs in Histone Research


Active Motif offers everything needed to study histone PTM interactions.

--Modiified Histone Peptide Array: peptide arrays contain 384 unique histone modification combinations. Arrays are available individually or in packs of 5 arrays. The Modiified Histone Peptide Array is a powerful tool used in epigenetic research to study the modifications of histone proteins. This array allows researchers to examine a large number of histone peptides, each with different modifications, in a high-throughput manner.

--Array Analyze Software: free PC compatible software program to analyze spot intensities and generate Excel-based files with raw data and graphical analysis. This software allows researchers to interpret the complex data and identify patterns and trends in histone modifications.

--Array Labeling Kits: Array Labeling Kits are essential in the process of preparing the histone peptides for the array. These kits provide the necessary reagents and protocols for labeling the peptides with fluorescent dyes, enabling their detection and quantification.

--Antibodies, Enzymes and Protein Domains: Active Motif offers a broad selection of histone modification antibodies, HAT, HDAC, HMT or HDM proteins and bromodomains that can be utilized in combination with the MODified Histone Peptide Array. Antibodies play a crucial role in the detection of histone modifications on the array. Enzymes are also used in the study of histone modifications, as they can add or remove specific modifications on the histone proteins. Protein domains are important structural and functional units of proteins that play a role in recognizing and binding to specific histone modifications.


Histone Peptide Array Service at ALL Chemistry


The modified Histone Peptide Arrays screen 59 acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and citrullination modifications on the N-terminal tails of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Each peptide array contains 384 unique histone modification combinations in duplicate, including up to four separate modifications on the same 19mer peptide. This extensive coverage of histone modifications enables the study not only of individual sites, but also the effects of neighboring modifications on recognition and binding. The simple array protocol works like a Western blot, no special equipment needed. Within chromatin, the accessible regions of histones represent substrates for chromatin writer and eraser enzymes, as well as recognition domains for chromatin reader proteins that facilitate higher order structure important in chromatin, gene and nuclear regulation.

ALL Chemistry developed a stage of art to promote the development of proteome study by utilizing advanced peptide array and microarray technologies. As one of the excellent chemical manufacturers, we have a mission to provide high-quality services to our customers. The ALL Chemistry's Histone Peptide Microarray is a glass microarray containing peptides corresponding to sequences of all four core histone subunits (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) plus select variants. Over 260 histone peptides representing various post-translational modifications are present on the array as unmodified, singly modified as well as multiply modified sequences with up to six modifications per peptide. Each Microarray is printed as two subarrays with each peptide represented six times per subarray to ensure confident binding analysis and quantitation.


Advantages of Our Services


All custom peptides are supplied with stringent analytical specifications, which include HPLC and MS analysis. Most custom peptides can be delivered within 2~3 weeks. The delivery time may vary depends on the peptide length and difficulty.

-- High density and high throughput. Tens of thousands of proteins-polypeptide biochemical reactions can be determined simultaneously.

-- High Specificity. Mechanism of protein binding can be deeply revealed by accurate positioning of specific antibody epitope and protein binding regions.

-- Low cost, short cycle and simple operation.The cost of "peptide array chip" is a hundredth of biological culture.

-- Accuracy and reliability: stable purity, clear result and easy to analyze.

-- Comprehensive modifications: Our modification services include biotin, FITC, phosphor, etc.

-- All information is treated in strict confidence.


Project Workflow


Evaluation → Experiment Design → Formal Quotation → Custom Histone Peptide Array → Results → Delivery



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